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The aim of this paper was to explore the literature on male rape myths with regards to their prevalence, historical presence, development, current manifestations and falsehood. A number of male rape myths are considered, including: men cannot be raped; only gay men are victims; a woman cannot sexually assault a man; and sexual assault by someone of the same sex causes homosexuality. Male myths are found to be endorsed by a substantial segment of the population and are related to social norms regarding masculinity and male sexuality. The authors particularly focused on how male rape myths are present and perpetuated within the institutions of medicine, media, law, military and prisons. The importance, at the individual level, of addressing the context of screening, treatment and sexual assault is discussed, particularly as men may not be willing to disclose their trauma because of rape myths.