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Gender differences in depression and anxiety

Author(s)Shorey, Ryan C., Amanda E. Sherman, Aaron J. Kivisto, Sara R. Elkins, Deborah L. Rhatigan and Todd M. Moore
Title Gender differences in depression and anxiety among victims of intimate partner violence: The moderating effect of shame proneness
Source Journal of Interpersonal Violence,June 2011, Vol 26, No 9,pp 1834-1850
Document type Journal article
Coverage USA
Summary This study examines shame proneness as a moderator of victimisation and mental health symptoms, specifically depression and anxiety, among male and female victims of intimate partner violence (IPV). University students participated in the study and the measures used for testing included a demographic questionnaire; the Revised Conflict Tactics Scale; Brief Symptom Inventory; and the Test of Self-Conscious Affect-3.   Results showed that women were higher in shame proneness and guilt proneness than men, and men reported experiencing more physical victimisation than women. It was found that shame and guilt proneness may be risk and protective factors for victimisation experiences. Shame proneness was found to moderate the relationship between all three types of victimisation, sexual, psychological, and physical, and symptoms of depression and anxiety.
Keywords Intimate partner violence; IPV; shame; abuse

Psychological effects and treatment